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Kano Online
July-August 2002

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Ibrahim Ado-Kurawa B. Sc (HONS) M. Sc Zoology (Applied Entomology)
Director Research, Institute for Contemporary Research (ICR) Kano and Chair [1]
Kano, Nigeria

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Inuwar Jama’ar Kano was formed by a group of Kano citizens in 1998 as a voluntary organization committed to the development of Kano State by complimenting the efforts of the three tiers of government. This section will examine the background to the formation and the objectives of the organization.

History and Society of Kano

Bagauda was the first Sarki (King) of Kano who established the state from the community that existed in 999 (Christian dating) since then Kano State has existed with a government based on the Hausa sarauta (kingship) system that underwent several transformations. The most important transformation was during the reign of Sarkin Kano Yaji when Islam became the official religion of the state and the society [1] . Prior to that the Saraukuna (Kings) were Muslims [2] and they practiced Islam at the individual level [3] but from the time of Yaji under the guidance of the Wangarawa Ulama, Islam became the official state religion. Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Rumfa instituted the fundamental changes that characterized Kano Sarauta ever since. He was guided by Shaykh Al-Maghili who recommended that kingship must exhibit power blended with mercy [4] but the kings subsequently emphasized power and harshness therefore they were greatly feared [5] .

The Jihad led Shehu Usman Danfodio brought significant changes to the Kano State and Society. The position of Islam was strengthened and the state was incorporated into a larger system of Caliphate in 1807 it therefore lost its independence by becoming a province known as Emirate. The impact of the Jihad was felt all over the Sudan and it was the first attempt at unifying the many peoples that became Nigeria [6] . Kano prospered during the Caliphate period in the 19th century and it became the leading commercial and craft-manufacturing center of this largest [7] and most prosperous state [8] in pre-colonial tropical Africa. Kano was the most celebrated textile-manufacturing center of pre-colonial Nigeria [9] . The Emirs promoted trade and craft manufacturing and Kano gained from the decline of Katsina during this period.

The Sokoto Caliphate was defeated and incorporated into the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria, which was part of the British Empire in 1903. The British colonialists had to rule indirectly because the area was very vast and they lack the manpower. Indirect rule meant ruling through the natives. This allowed Northern Nigeria to preserve some of its traditions that did not conflict with British notions. The Nigerian Federation made up of four regions; Eastern, Northern and Western, was granted independence by the British in 1960. Seven years later a civil war erupted and the Federal Government, which was then ruled by the military decided to create 12 states and Kano State was created from the former Northern Region. Its first military governor was Alhaji Audu Bako who was a police officer.

Through out the colonial period and up to 1970 the Kano economy depended on groundnut production and over 500000 metric tons were produced in Kano during the best season. The federal government also relied on revenue from agriculture during this period. Then suddenly revenue from oil replaced all other means and the Nigerian nation became dependent on this source. There were boom years, which result in rapid expansion of infrastructure in the whole country and the worst years came in the 1980s. It should be noted that during the period of expansion the Nigerian economy the government made a peak earning of $24.93 billion from oil per annum in 1980. But when the downfall came the government earned its lowest revenue of $5 billion per annum in 1986 [10] no miracle could save such a state that depended on one source for its revenue. Corruption became more pronounced and it has since remained in the Nigerian state largely because of its structure. Corrupt people always hide under the cover of their ethnic and religious backgrounds by dishing out patronage to their sectional clients.

With increase in population and economic dislocations poverty became pronounced. The Nigerian state including its branches the state and local governments could hardly meet their obligations more especially with rampant corruption and mismanagement. In the southern states many communities complimented the efforts of the governments by providing some of the services expected from the state. In the northern states this was very rare people tended to depend on government for services, since the state has been existence in some places like Kano for about one thousand years, it was therefore very difficult for people to adjust to the new reality that the state is unable to provide most of the services. In the middle of 1980s some concerned citizens in Kano decided to form the Kano Foundation that will compliment the services of the state. Also earlier in the 1960s the Kano community under the leadership of Mallam Aminu Kano established community schools, which were later taken over by the state government but there is still one of such schools. At other levels many self-help groups were established at the local government areas. Kano Municipal also established a neighborhood education committee that initiated many projects to compliment the efforts of the state.

It was within this background that some concerned Kano citizens formed the Inuwar Jama’ar Kano in 1998. They used the goodwill of then Head of State General Sani Abacha a Kano indigene and they launched a N500M Educational Endowment Fund. N302595113 in cash or kind were pledged at the launching on the 30th of May 1998. Out of the pledges as at December 31, 1998 N126335558 were redeemed and lodged by the trustees in various accounts. Since that time the accounts of the organization have always been audited by the first chartered accountant of Kano origin Alhaji Aminu Ibrahim and Company.

Objectives of Inuwar Jama’ar Kano and the ways it achieves them

The objectives of Inuwar Jama’ar Kano are:

v     To sensitize the people of Kano on the imperativeness of their involvement in all matters affecting their lives unlike previous attitude of leaving everything to the government.

v     To tackle the state of despair amongst youths.

v     To provide a government/community platform for collaborative efforts for development

v     To constantly and critically review and assess the prevailing socio-economic, political and security problems of Kano. This is with a view to projecting the best identifiable course of action for the achievement of orderly development.

v     To serve as a catalyst for the promotion of greater opportunities in business and industrial enterprises for Kano.

v     To pay due attention to the decline in moral standards, and thus explore means of ensuring inculcation of a culture of discipline and moral rectitude, particularly amongst youth.

v     To pay priority attention to female education, science education, Islamic education, youth and sports development.

Inuwar Jama’ar Kano achieves its objectives by:

v     Giving support to target groups. For example in the case of education it gives assistance to both community and government owned and non-commercial schools for the improvement of the delivery of their services.

v     Mobilizing Kano people to undertake development efforts as organized groups helping themselves from within before soliciting support from without.

v     Building the capacity of communities, individuals and groups particularly in the areas of planning, management and supervision of basic education.

v     Improving the quality of delivery of education through teacher training and strengthening of monitoring and supervision, and also in the supply of teaching and learning materials with a view to enhancing a multi-sectoral approach for a better environment for pupils.

v     Commissioning research and studies into issues of interest and relevance to the people of Kano.

v     Aiding those with commercial, entrepreneurial experience and resources with available means to establish or develop their enterprises so as to offer greater employment opportunities for the people of Kano thereby boosting the stagnating industrial and commercial life of Kano.

v     Projecting the good image of Kano as the haven of Hausa Islamic culture with abundant business opportunities by assisting groups involved with such endeavors.


This section deals with the organs of the organization, which are the board of trustees and the management and the local educational advancement committees. It also deals with how the organization carries out its activities.

The Board of Trustees, Management and their Committees

The board of trustees approves all policies and budget of the organization and therefore it is the most important organ. Inuwar Jama’ar Kano largely depends on the goodwill and integrity of the members of the board of trustees. It is therefore necessary at this juncture to give a brief profile of the members of this board.


Alhaji (Dr) Magaji Dambatta OFR Hon. D.Litt (BUK)

Alhaji Magaji Dambatta
He is the chairman of the board of trustees. He had a meritorious career in public services where he served in various capacities at the state and federal government levels. He was one time chairman of Daily Times group of newspapers, Federal Housing Authority, Broadcasting Corporation of Northern Nigeria and Kano State Broadcasting Corporation.

Sheikh Na’ibi Sulaiman Wali

Sheikh Naibi Suleiman Wali A distinguished Islamic Scholar who retired from the public service as a Kadi of the Shari’ah Court of Appeal of Kano State. He has been involved in the formation of many laudable organizations including Jama’at Nasril Islam, the most prestigious Islamic organization, which he co-founded during the first republic. He has also been involved in mass literacy initiatives for over fifty years.

Alhaji Imam Abubakar Wali mni

Alhaji Imam Abubakar Wali

A distinguished educationist who served in all capacities from schoolteacher up to the state commissioner for education he has also served as a member and chairman of various boards associated with education at the state and the federal levels. His last public engagement was the Chairmanship of the Kano State Local Government Service Commission.

Sheikh Isa Waziri MON (WAZIRIN KANO)

Sheikh Isa Waziri

A prominent Islamic scholar who was trained at the famous Al-Azhar University Cairo he was a school teacher, an Area Court Judge as well as the Chief Imam of Kano before his appointment as Wazirin Kano and Chief Islamic Adviser of the Emir.

Professor Shehu Galadanchi CON

Prof . Shehu Galadanci

An Arabic Scholar and former university vice-chancellor, who rose from the rank of schoolteacher up to the professorial level. He has also had a distinguished diplomatic career as the Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for several years. He is currently a permanent commissioner of the Independent National Electoral Commission.

Professor Ibrahim Umar

Prof .  Ibrahim Umar

Professor of Physics and distinguished university administrator, he served as vice chancellor in two different federal universities with impeccable records. He is currently serving as the Director General National Energy Commission of Nigeria.

Alhaji Muhammadu Ibrahim JP OFR

Alhaji Muhammad Ibrahim

He was a permanent secretary in the state civil service before he retired and joined the banking industry where he worked in the First Bank of Nigeria one of the nation’s premier banks and he is currently a member of the board of directors of that bank. He has been involved in the establishment of reputable voluntary organizations.

Ambassador Shu’aib Uthman Yolah OON

Ambassador Shuaibu Uthman Yola

He was a high caliber diplomat before his retirement from the Foreign Service having served as the undersecretary general of the United Nations. He was a director general (equivalent of permanent secretary) in the federal civil service before he moved to National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies where he served as a directing staff before he retired from the public service. As an intellectual he was invited to deliver a concluding lecture of the National War College.

Alhaji Shehu Minjibir

Alhaji Shehu Minjibir

He was a distinguished schoolteacher and he has served as the chairman of various education boards of the state. He is currently the chairman of the Kano State Civil Service Commission.

Alhaji Sadauki Abubakar

Alhaji Abubakar Sadauki

A distinguished public servant who served as the Secretary to the State Government and Head of the Civil Service he was also an Executive Director of the First Bank of Nigeria PLC. He is currently a commissioner in the Revenue Mobilization, Allocation and Fiscal Commission.

Alhaji Ali Al-Hakeem

Alhaji Ali Al-Hakeem

A captain of industry, who was both in the banking and the oil industry, he was a former Managing Director of the Bank of the North Limited and an Executive Director of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.

Dr. Ibrahim Datti Ahmed OFR

Dr. Ibrahim Datti

A medical doctor by profession who has been an active member of the civil society he was one of the forty-nine wise men who drafted the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1979. He was also a Pro-Chancellor and Chair of the University Council Obafemi Awolowo University. He is currently the President General of the Supreme Council for Shari’ah in Nigeria.

Alhaji Sulaiman Baffa

Alhaji Suleiman Baffa

He was a permanent secretary in the state civil service before he retired and joined the banking industry where he became the Managing Director of United Bank For Africa and later Union Bank of Nigeria the largest bank in Nigeria. He was also the Managing Director of Nigeria Security Printing and Minting Company.

Dr. Tijani Isma’il 

Dr. Tijjani Ismail

A distinguished educationist and prolific author who served in various capacities including the State Commissioner for Education and provost Federal College of Education Kano and he is currently a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education Bayero University Kano.

Alhaji Ibrahim Khalil

Alhaji Ibrahim Khalil

An accomplished Islamic scholar who established an Islamic school and has been involved in Islamic activities, he conducts Islamic lessons in various mosques all over the state.

Alhaji Sarki Abdullahi Ibrahim (Makaman Kano)

Makama Sarki Ibrahim

A distinguished public administrator who attained the highest rank of Permanent Secretary in the civil service of the Federal Government of Nigeria before he retired and assumed full time responsibility of Makaman Kano and District Head of Wudil a hereditary position held by his ancestors for almost two hundred years.

Alhaji Isiyaku Umar Tofa

Alhaji Isyaku Umar Tofa

A very successful businessman who established a printing press and paper mill, he is also a director of Nigeria Intercontinental Bank one of the nation’s most successful banks and Chairman of the Equity Bank of Nigeria.

Dr. Musa Borodo

Dr. Musa Borodo

A medical doctor by profession and physician by specialization who has earned great respect because of his dedication and honesty he has also served as the chairman of the Medical Advisory Committee of the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital.

Malam Ibrahim Shekarau

Malam Ibrahim Shekarau

A former schoolteacher who rose through the ranks to the position of permanent secretary in the state civil service before he retired he was an active member of the national association of principals of secondary schools where he served as the national president.

Alhaji Muzzamil Sani Hanga

Alhaji Muzammil Sani Hanga

A lawyer by profession who has been active member of the civil society and he is a leading advocate for positive social change in various voluntary organizations especially those associated with Islam.

Alhaji Ibrahim Galadima

Alhaji Ibrahim Galadima

A distinguished sports administrator, former state commissioner and now Chairman of Nigeria Football Association where he was nationally elected because of the confidence the sports administrators have in him.

Dr. Haruna Salihi

Dr. Haruna Salihi

A Senior Lecturer in the Department of Political Science Bayero University, he has also been an active member of the civil society through his participation in reputable voluntary organizations.

Alhaji Aminu Mahmud

Alhaji Aminu Mahmoud

A media consultant who served in the state television before his retirement, he was also a Special Assistant to the Honorable Minister of Water Resources of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Alhaji Muhammad B. Muhammad

Alhaji M B Muhammad

A Lecturer in the Department of Islamic Studies Bayero University and also the Imam of Bilal Juma’at Mosque but he is currently a commissioner in the Shari’ah Commission of Bauchi on secondment.

Alhaji A. G. Abdullahi

Alhaji AG Abdullahi

A successful businessman and pioneer who ventured into businesses which are dominated by other non-Hausa ethnic groups and established a network of dealers that he brought up from apprenticeship to full entrepreneurship.

Alhaji Abdulkarim Hassan

Alhaji Abdulkareem Hassan

A distinguished educationist who served from the level of schoolteacher up to Director Schools and later Registrar Kano State University and after his retirement he was appointed Chairman of the Governing Council of the State Polytechnic. He is the Director General of Inuwar Kano and its Chief Executive.


The Director-General, Alhaji Abdulkarim Hassan heads the management team he is ably assisted by Alhaji Abdulmalik Yakubu the Director Education since education is the priority of the organization.

Alhaji Abdulmalik Yakubu

Alhaji Abdulmalik Yakubu

He graduated from Bayero University and he was a schoolteacher and secondary school principal before joining the Kano Municipal Neighborhood Education Committee as its Executive Secretary. He has participated in many activities of the UNICEF and many other activities related to mass mobilization for positive social change.

Other Staff:

Alhaji Sulaiman Mohammed Yola           Education Officer

Hajiya Amina Aminu                              Administrative Officer

Engineer Hassan Sani Kafinga                Technical Officer

Alhaji Abdu Inusa                                  Accountant

Isah Ali                                                  Personal Secretary/Computer Officer

Salisu Abubakar                        Stores Officer



The board of trustees delegated some of its functions to committees for efficient implementation of its policies. They are:

Education Implementation Committee

Since education is the priority of the organization a high-powered committee was established to implement the educational policies of the organization. The committee is made up of accomplished educationists some of whom are members of the board of trustees. They are:

Professor Shehu Galadanchi                   Chairman

Alhaji Imam Wali mni                                                         “

Dr. Tijani Isma’il                                   “

Professor Ibrahim H. Umar                         “

Dr. Musa M. Borodo                                            “

Alhaji Muzammil Sani Hanga           “

Malam Ibrahim Shekarau                               “

Alhaji A. G. Abdullahi                                     “

Alhaji Sarki Ibrahim (Makaman Kano)                     “

Alhaji Sani Buhari Daura                               “

Alhaji Ibrahim Ramalan                                      “

Permanent Secretary (MOE, Kano)                 “

Alhaji Abdulkarim Hassan                            “

Alhaji Abdulmalik Yakubu                                    Secretary

Establishment Committee

This committee recruits and promotes staff. It is also concerned with their welfare. And to ensure efficiency and quality output it is headed by a seasoned public servant with experience in manpower management at the both the public and private sectors.

The members are:

Alhaji Muhammadu Ibrahim JP OFR Chairman

Dr. Tijani Ismai’l                                                        “

Alhaji Isiyaku Umar                                                          “

Malam Ibrahim Shekarau                                                    “

Alhaji Abdulkarim Hassan                                           “

Alhaji Abdulmalik Yakubu                                                Secretary

Investment Committee

The organization depends on donation and interest income from its deposit at various banks. Prudent management and knowledge of treasury is required to determine the best rates and the risks involved especially with the history of bank failures looming in the industry. The organization is lucky to have experienced bankers and successful entrepreneurs in its board of trustees who were delegated to serve in this important committee. The members are:

Alhaji Muhammadu Ibrahim JP OFR                          Chairman

Alhaji Isiyaku Umar Tofa                                            Member

Alhaji Sulaiman Baffa                                                       “

Alhaji Sadauki Abubakar                                                “

Alhaji Ali Al-Hakim OFR                                            “

Alhaji A. G. Abdullahi                                                 “

Alhaji Abdulkarim Hassan                                     Secretary

Tenders Committee

An experienced and honest public servant heads this committee from its name the committee studies the tenders made by contractors and suppliers and determines the best. The members are:

Alhaji Shehu Minjibir                                                Chairman

Malam Ibrahim Shekarau                                       “

Permanent Secretary MOE Kano                       “

Alhaji Abdulkarim Hassan                              “

Alhaji Abdulmalik Yakubu                                    Secretary


Since its establishment four years ago Inuwar Jama’ar Kano has had positive impact on the Kano society by influencing attitudinal change. The society now realizes that every member most make contribution because government alone cannot provide all the services needed. In the last four years the organization has spent over N85 million on for the development of the community [11] . Before embarking on its project the organization had to acquire comprehensive statistical data pertaining to formal and informal schools in all the forty-four local governments. A group tour to all the forty-four local government areas was also carried out and Educational Advancement Committees (EAC) of ten members were established in all the forty-four local government areas. These activities were conducted in 1999 to facilitate the implementation of the educational objectives of the organization.

The achievements are broadly classified into four below:


In 1999 the organization delivered furniture, textbooks and other teaching and learning materials to over 1450 Arabic, Qur’anic and Islamiyya schools all over the state. In the same year 14 community-owned schools projects were completed in 14 local government areas. Forty shades or verandas were constructed for Qur’anic schools in 20 local government areas. The organization initiated the handing over of a primary school to the state primary schools board built by Holborn Nigeria Limited the school was supported with office, teaching and learning materials. Two hundred adult literacy centers were supported in line with the forum’s objective of contributing towards eradication of mass illiteracy. The victims of Kano-Shagamu disturbances were assisted with relief materials worth half a million naira.

The Faculty of Medicine Bayero University Kano has been battling to secure accreditation of the regulatory authorities for almost two decades. Being the only faculty of medicine in a state of over five million inhabitants it is certainly very crucial to the security and survival of the people. Therefore in 1999, Inuwar Jama’ar Kano decided to assist the faculty in its effort of enhancing its facilities to secure accreditation and enable its students to graduate at the university instead of going to other universities for the completion of their program. The organization assisted the faculty with two Peugeot Station Wagon vehicles for transporting visiting lecturers from ther locations and a heavy-duty photocopier.

In the years 2000 and 2001 the organization continued with its positive intervention strategies in schools. It provided instructional materials (teaching and learning), laboratory and home economic equipments, library materials (books, computers and furniture) and sporting, health and sanitation facilities for various schools. It also supported 14 women vocational centers and 700 Islamiyya, Arabic and Qur’anic schools. In line with its objective of encouraging maximum output from teachers the organization provided incentives to some selected teachers.


Inuwar Jama’ar Kano believes one of the best ways of improving our educational services is through the building of the capacity of our teachers, policy initiators and all those in the sector. This vigorous commitment earned it the recognition of UNICEF the leading international organization concerned with education in under developed countries. Inuwar Jama’ar Kano is now a partner of UNICEF in northern Nigeria in this noble campaign of making education available to as many children as possible.

In the year 2000 Inuwar Jama’ar Kano organized a 2-day seminar on better schools management for principals, principal inspectors of education and inspectors of Arabic secondary schools in the state. Another 2-day seminar for improved continuous assessment techniques for continuous assessment masters and examinations officers was organized. This was because most of those involved in computing continuous assessment lacked the requisite skills and this has led to widespread failure of many school leavers since continuous is an important component of the final result. As part of its linkage with the UNICEF there was a 3-day joint seminar on the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), Convention for Eradication of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDWA), National Program on Immunization/National Immunization Days and Child Labor but all within the local context was organized for local government information officers, chairmen of education advancement committees, opinion leaders and headmasters of model schools. There was also a 3-day sensitization/enrollment drive campaign on girl child education drive conducted at Gezawa, Kumbotso and Ungogo Local Government Areas.

In the 2001 Inuwar Jama’ar Kano continued with its work with UNICEF, they jointly organized a national workshop on the improvement of girl child education with participants drawn from 16 states of the federation far beyond the areas of operations of Inuwar Jama’ar Kano. They also jointly organized another 4-day zonal workshop on Primer Writing/Book Production with participants from 10 northern states which is also far beyond the areas of operation of the organization. Inuwar Jama’ar Kano organized a 3-day workshop on conflict management for female teachers drawn from male and female secondary schools of Kano State. The organization also conducted numerous professional contacts with some principals and teachers on managerial skills and records up keep.


Inuwar Jama’ar Kano believes in empowering deserving target groups for the attainment of its goal of achieving sustainable development. In the year 2000 the organization donated an electric generator to the Center for Study of Nigerian Languages the oldest research center in Bayero University to enable it carry out its research work efficiently. It also donated a high-powered mini radio cassette recorder to a blind post-graduate student. The international award winning Masallaci Adult Literary Center was also empowered with an electricity generator to enable it carry out its evening adult literacy classes. Also in the same year Inuwar Jama’ar Kano supported some organizations to conduct their activities for example Kano State Science students Association ABU Zaria received assistance, which enabled it to conduct a career workshop. Kano State Association for the Deaf and Dumb was given assistance to facilitate attendance to a national meeting. ANCOPS was provided with assistance to attend a national convention in which a Kano candidate emerged National President of the Association. Kano Education Resource Department was assisted with prizes when it conducted the state JETS competition.

In the year 2001 Inuwar Jama’ar Kano continued with its support to ANCOPS, and Kano State Science Secondary Schools Association of ABU Zaria. In addition it also supported the National Association of Kano State Students to organize 3-days of public lectures on Youth Educational Aspirations and it also supported the Kano State Library Board in hosting the 17th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Schools Library Associations.

In the year 2002 Inuwar Jama’ar Kano assisted the Internet group with research grant to enable it commission papers for posting on the site that covers all aspects of Kano State and society. Also in the same year the organization assisted entrepreneurs who lost their investment as a result of 2001 anti-American riots with credit facilities.


The organization has mobilized a large percentage of people at the grassroots for participation in activities for the improvement of education through the education advancement committees whose members were distinguished ladies and gentlemen who excelled in their chosen careers. The campaigns of the organization also encouraged many parents to participate in the activities of the Parent Teachers Associations.

The organization’s activities have been well publicized by the media thus bringing more positive responses and participation in its activities by important dignitaries. The Emir of Kano has graced several occasions of the organizations, which also briefs him annually on its activities thereby sensitizing the general public. The organization has had several fruitful discussions with many individuals and organizations that are interested in the development of the community in which many ideas were exchanged.


Ado-Kurawa, I. 2000 Shari’ah and the Press in Nigeria: Islam versus Western Christian Civilization Kano.

Ajayi, J. F. A. 1980. Milestones in Nigerian History London

Bedri, K. and Starratt, P. E. 1977. (Translation of) ‘Taj al-Din Fima Yajib ‘ala al-Muluk or The Crown of Religion Concerning the Obligation of Princes’ Kano Studies (New Series) (2) 1974/77

Ferguson, D. E. 1973 ‘Nineteenth Century Hausaland Being a Description by Imam Imoru of the Land, Economy and Society of his People’ PhD Dissertation University of California Los Angeles

Iliffe, J. 1995. Africans: The History of A Continent. Cambridge

Isichei, E. 1983 A History of Nigeria Essex

Kwaru, A. 1991 ‘Waziri Allah Bar Sarki, 1865-1917: A Neglected Personality in the Political History of Kano’ MA Dissertation Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto

Lubeck, P. 1986. Islam and Urban Labour in Northern Nigeria. Cambridge

Ubah, C. N. 1977 'Aspect of Islamic Impact on Pre-Colonial Kano' Islamic Culture

[1] For more information see Palmer 1928 and Smith 1997

[2] For detailed explanation see Ado-Kurawa 2000: 215-221

[3] Ubah 1977: 110

[4] Bedri and Starratt 1974/77 for a translation of Al-Maghili’s treatise for Rumfa where stated the qualities needed of a ruler.

[5] Ferguson 1973: 239-240 where he described how offenders were treated and Kwaru 1991: 59

[6] Ajayi 1980: 5

[7] Lubeck 1986: 12

[8] Illife 1995: 171

[9] Isichei 1983: 60

[10] IMF International Financial Statistics quoted in Khan, S. A. 1994 Nigeria: The Political Economy of Oil Oxford Institute for Energy Studies p. 184 table 8.1

[11] See its annual reports of 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001 for the achievements listed below.

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